Thursday, August 27, 2020

Joseph Campbell’s Monomyth Essay

1. Legend presented in his common world Odysseus is a solid leader of Ithaca (Greek city-state), anyway needs involvement with war. He is additionally the child of Lã ¤ertes 2. The call to adventure He wins the Trojan war through his cleverness nature. As his armada left for Ithaca, solid breezes clear them off kilter 3. Legend is hesitant from the outset Odysseus and his men get somewhat apprehensive in the wake of understanding that they had no clue about where they were setting out toward 4. Energized by the astute elderly person/lady En route, Odysseus gets heaps of exhortation of how he should continue with his endeavor from Circe the Enchantress 5. Saint passes the primary edge The primary issue that Odysseus appearances would be in the start of the Odyssey, where his armada land on the city of Ismara, and loot the Cicones occupying the area 6. Saint experiences tests and aides Different perils for Odysseus were: Polyphemus, The Lotus-Eaters, Hades, The Sirens, Scylla and so on. 7. Saint arrives at the deepest cavern The biggest issue at any point looked by Odysseus’s armada would be the Man-eating Cyclops named Polyphemus. Being the child of Poseidon, Odysseus’s duplicity irritated the God of the ocean, which would cause considerably more ramifications on them. This would to a great extent influence Odysseus’s quality positively 8. Saint perseveres through the incomparable experience Odysseus attempt to escape Polyphemus’s island first, however Odysseus hubris betrays their own kin. Polyphemus assaults Odysseus’s men with stones and shakes. With karma, they escape into the waters, far off from risk 9. Legend holds onto the blade Odysseus at long last annihilations all foes 10. The street back Lamentably, as he does as such, he loses every one of his men, when Poseidon hits hisâ fleet with the intensity of the seething ocean 11. Restoration Only he escapes from the looming risk and understands his mix-ups. He at long last arrives at the Phaeacians, and reveals to them his story, since it had been over multi year since he had left for the fight to come 12. Come back with the fortune His â€Å"treasure† is more in a type of an exercise, where he understands that covetousness is something that defiles a man. His experience is unquestionably a model, since with his eagerness came the loss of his men and assets

Saturday, August 22, 2020

High Fracture Toughness of Al2O3-TiN0.3 Composites

High Fracture Toughness of Al2O3-TiN0.3 Composites High crack strength of Al2O3-TiN0.3 composites arranged by means of flash plasma sintering Lina Qiaoa, b, Yucheng Zhaoa, Mingzhi Wanga, à ¯Ã¢ Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃ£ ¯Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢ ªÃ£ ¯Ã¢ Ã¢ , Yana Yea, Junxing Zhanga, Qin Zoua, Qian Yanga, Hua Dengc, Ying Xingc Conceptual Al2O3â€TiN0.3 composites with various TiN0.3 substance were flash plasma sintered at 1300â€1600  °C for 10 min. Stage distinguishing proof was portrayed through X-beam diffraction. Microstructures were watched utilizing a filtering electron magnifying instrument. The break sturdiness of the composite with 30 vol% TiN0.3 sintered at 1500  °C scopes to the most noteworthy estimation of 6.91 MPa m1/2. In light of the primary standards thickness practical hypothesis, the thickness of states for TiN and TiNx was determined. The covalent holding is debilitated and the metallic holding is reinforced as the nitrogen fixation is decreased in nonstoichiometric TiNx. The dynamic slip frameworks dictated by covalent holding for the nitrides are perhaps expanded by including nonstoichiometric TiN0.3, which improves the crack sturdiness of Al2O3-based composites. Catchphrases: Al2O3â€TiN0.3 composites;Fracture strength; Slip framework; Bond figuring 1. Presentation Alumina (Al2O3) earthenware production are fundamental basic materials, however the inborn weakness has repressed their applications [1, 2]. The break sturdiness can be improved significantly by including an auxiliary strengthening stage into the network. The impacts of TiN particles on the mechanical properties of Al2O3-based composites have been broadly contemplated [3â€9]. Shen et al. [9] announced that the crack durability of Al2O3â€TiN composites arranged through flash plasma sintering (SPS) at 1500  °C spans to a most extreme estimation of 5.7 MPa m1/2. Li et al. [1] contemplated the mechanical properties of TiNâ€Al2O3 nanocomposites arranged by hot squeezing at 1550  °C, and brought up that the most elevated break strength is 5.27 MPa m1/2. Be that as it may, there have been hardly any reports about the impacts of nonstoichiometric TiN0.3 on the break sturdiness of Al2O3-based composites. In this investigation, nonstoichiometricTiN0.3 was included into Al2O3 lattice, and the impacts of TiN0.3 on the mechanical properties (particularly break strength) of the composites were examined. Nonstoichiometric TiN0.3 integrated by means of mechanical alloying (MA) has fine grain size and TiN-type structure with various N opening [10, 11], which are helpful for improving sinterability [11â€14]. Besides, debilitating covalent bond and fortifying metallic bond in TiN0.3 structure [15, 16] may have a significant impact on the crack strength. This examination means to confirm whether including nonstoichiometric materials can expand the break sturdiness of Al2O3-based composites. 2. Exploratory Crude materials utilized incorporate TiN0.3 blended through MA [10, 11] and business powders Al2O3 (systematically unadulterated, a normal molecule size of 1 ÃŽ ¼m). Powder blends were processed for 2 h in supreme ethanol utilizing WC processing media on a Pulverisette 4 Vario-Planetary Mill (FRTSCH German) at 300 rpm. SPS (3.20 MK-IV, Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd.) was acted in vacuum (6ãâ€"10âˆ'3 Pa) at various warmth treatment temperatures (1300â€1600  °C) for 10min at 30 MPa. The warming rate was 100  °C/min. The temperature was resolved utilizing an optical pyrometer concentrated on the non-through opening situated on the outside of the graphite pass on. Stage ID was performed through X-beam diffraction (XRD) with Cu Kî ± radiation by utilizing a D/MAX-2500PC diffractometer (Rigaku). Microstructures of the specimen’s cleaned surface and break cross-areas were watched utilizing a S-3400N (Hitachis) filtering electron magnifying lens (SEM) furnished with electron back-dispersed diffraction (Edax-Tsl, Ametek). The twisting quality was estimated with Instron-5848 MicroTester (America) utilizing the three point bowing test with a range length of 13 mm and crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Crack strength was resolved through the Vickers space technique proposed by Anstis et. al [17]. Estimations of the hardness and break sturdiness were led utilizing a FM-700 Vickers hardness analyzer (Future-Tech, Japan) by space utilizing a pyramidal indenter and applying a 10 kg load for 10 s. 3. Results 3.1 XRD recognizable proof and morphology perception Fig. 1 shows the XRD examples of Al2O3â€30 vol% TiN0.3 composite sintered through SPS at various temperatures in vacuum (6ãâ€"103 Pa) for 10 min. Just TiN0.3 and ÃŽ ±-Al2O3 stages are identified in the XRD designs. It recommends that no synthetic response happens between the subsequent stage and the framework. Fig. 2 shows the back-dispersed SEM micrograph of the cleaned surface of Al2O3â€30 vol% TiN0.3 composite sintered by means of SPS at 1400  °C in vacuum (6ãâ€"103 Pa) for 10 min. The dark grains are Al2O3, while the white ones are TiN0.3. TiN0.3 grains are consistently scattered in Al2O3 grid. Fig. 3 shows the microstructure of the break cross-segments of Al2O3â€30 vol% TiN0.3 composite sintered by means of SPS at various temperatures in vacuum (6ãâ€"103 Pa) for 10 min. At the point when the sintering temperature is raised to 1400  °C, the grain size of the composite is fine and roughly 2 ÃŽ ¼m for Al2O3; the break mode is primarily intergranular (Fig. 3 b). At that point the additions developed clearly with further raising the sintering temperature, here ~3-4 ÃŽ ¼m at 1500  °C and ~4-5 ÃŽ ¼m at 1600  °C for Al2O3; the crack modes are intergranular and transgranular (Fig. 3 c and d). Also, Al2O3â€30 vol% TiN0.3 composite has not arrived at full thickness at 1300  °C, as showed both by the SEM perceptions (Fig. 3) and estimated hardness esteems (Fig. 5). Fig. 4 shows the microstructure of the break cross-segments of Al2O3â€TiN0.3 composites with various TiN0.3 substance sintered by means of SPS at 1400  °C in vacuum (6ãâ€"103 Pa) for 10 min. The grain size of Al2O3 existed in all examples doesn't change essentially. It isn't concurrence with the past investigation that the expansion of TiN viably hinders the grain development of Al2O3 [9]. This marvel might be credited to the way that Al2O3â€TiN0.3 composites have great sinterability. What's more, the break morphology is impacted by TiN0.3 content in these examples. The break method of Al2O3â€TiN0.3 composites with TiN0.3 substance from 10 vol% to 30 vol% (Fig. 4 aâ€c) is basically intergranular. Be that as it may, the crack methods of Al2O3â€TiN0.3 composite with 40 vol% TiN0.3 (Fig. 4 d) are intergranular and transgranular. The clarification for the break mode change is that the grain limits in Al2O3â€TiN0.3 composites are reinforced, hindering intergranular sp lit spread. 3.2 Mechanical properties Fig. 5 a shows the Vickers hardness of Al2O3â€30 vol% TiN0.3 composite sintered at various temperatures. The Vickers hardness of Al2O3â€30 vol% TiN0.3 composite sintered at 1400  °C ranges to the most elevated estimation of 18.75 GPa, at that point somewhat diminishes with raising the sintering temperature, which is because of grain development [9, 18, 19] (Fig. 3 b-d). Fig. 5 b shows the Vickers hardness of Al2O3â€TiN0.3 composites sintered at 1400  °C versus TiN0.3 content. The Vickers hardness of Al2O3â€TiN0.3 composites with various TiN0.3 substance from 10 vol% to 40 vol% compasses to a scope of 17â€19 GPa, which is no critical distinction from that of unadulterated Al2O3 and near that of Al2O3â€TiN nanocomposites [1]. Fig. 6 shows the bowing quality of Al2O3â€TiN0.3 composites sintered at 1400  °C versus TiN0.3 content. The twisting quality of Al2O3â€TiN0.3 composites sintered at 1400  °C increments with expanding TiN0.3 substance from 10 vol% to 40 vol%, and is higher than that of Al2O3 pottery. As including TiN0.3 into Al2O3 network, the microstructure is improved and the grain limits are reinforced, which lead to an expansion in the bowing quality of Al2O3â€TiN0.3 composites. The break durability of the composite with 30 vol% TiN0.3 sintered at 1500  °C ranges to the most elevated estimation of 6.91 MPa m1/2, as appeared in Fig. 5 a, which is a lot higher than that of nano-or micron-sized Al2O3â€TiN composites [1, 4, 5, 9, 20]. Also, the break sturdiness of the composites sintered at 1400  °C increments with the expansion of TiN0.3, and presents a greatest estimation of 6.60 MPa m1/2 at 30 vol% TiN0.3, at that point diminishes with further expanding the measure of TiN0.3, as appeared in Fig. 5 b. These outcomes are in concurrence with past examinations [1, 4, 5, 9, 20]. For particulate strengthened composites, many toughening instruments, for example, break sticking, microcrack toughening, split avoidance, remaining pressure toughening and split crossing over have been proposed. For TiNâ€Al2O3 composites, Li et al. [1] revealed that conceivable toughening components are break avoidances and additionally split sticking; Shen et al. [9] brought up that the prevailing toughening system is identified with split tilting and contorting brought about by warm development as well as versatile modulus befuddle stresses. It is hard to demonstrate a predominant toughening system. In this examination, perhaps a portion of these toughening components are dynamic simultaneously. In any case, because of structure imperfection, TiN0.3 may have a significant impact on the break durability. It will be examined along these lines in more detail. 4. Conversation The above test results recommend that including a nonstoichiometric TiN0.3 stage is progressively successful for improving the break strength of Al2O3-based composites. To clarify the marvel, in view of the primary standards thickness utilitarian hypothesis [15, 16, 21], the thickness of states (DOS) for TiN and TiNx was determined, as appeared in Fig 7. Near the Fermi level, the DOS for TiN comprises of hybridized Ti-3d and N-2p states, as appeared in Fig. 7. It tends to be seen

Friday, August 21, 2020

American values from jamestown Essay Example For Students

American qualities from jamestown Essay Before England could settle the New World, it required a Middle Class to support private settlements and a millitary to ensure those ventures. In spite of the fact that the Spanish had a multi year head start the English would thusly overwhelm the New World. This was good to go moving by King Henry VIIIs Act of Supremacy. Ruler Henry VIII parted from the Cathloc Church since he needed a separation. While leaving he held onto riches by taking 1/4 of the land. He gave the land to his supporters who turned into the working class. The nobles restricted the siezing of land yet did nothin gright away. In this way the Act of Supremacy made the white collar class. The white collar class presently had cash to spend in the Europe. The Price Revolution had now begun. In light of this Spanish cash spread in Europe. Since individuals were bringing in cash wide spread swelling had begun. Presently European products became expensiveto english nobles. Nobles had no new world gold and didnt advantage from swelling. Since nobles were losing everything they asked Queen Elizabeth to raise the lease . The Queen later said No! This permitted the white collar class to got rich. The white collar class made mone by purchasing at early english cost. also, putting resources into Europe items. Nobles were attached to fix lands. The nobles chose to accomplish something. The nobles shut all their property and this was called. The inclosure development. The nobles at that point fenced in the entirety of their territory. There fore laborers had to look for new work an another life. The white collar class had a venture to the new world. One promblem was the spanish controlled the oceans. Britain rivaled Spain for the oceans. Force hungry Prince Phillip II of Spain needed more. In a plan to expand power he proposed to Queen Elizabeth. By and by the Queen said no. Offended King Phillip sent his armada the Armada to assault England. Anyway the littler boats of England annihilated the task force in 1588. Presently England had the ocean controll for the following 400 years.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Digestive System ( Https ) - 1955 Words

Maureen Reid - Student I.D. REIM0115; Task M; Confirm Physical Health Status. The Digestive System Parts of the Digestive System ( The digestive system comprises of multiple organs like the mouth, which consists of the salivary glands, saliva, tongue and epiglottis; the Pharynx, Oesophagus, Diaphragm, Stomach, Spleen, Liver, Pancreas and the Lower gastrointestinal tract which includes the small and large intestine and the caecum. The major role of this system like it suggests is to digest food. It digests and provides nutrients to the body and passes on the waste to the excretory system to safely pass it out of the body. The Mouth breaks down the food into small components which are then accordingly absorbed and assimilated into the body. The salivary glands secrete saliva which also helps in the production of bolus which makes the task easier and it is then swallowed by the oesophagus and passed right down into the stomach. The saliva contains a catalytic enzyme called amylase which starts working on the food in the mouth itself and digestion is also helped due to the mastication of the food by the teeth and mu scular contractions of the peristalsis. The term peristalsis refers to the rhythmic contraction of muscles that begins right up in the oesophagus and up till the walls of the stomach and the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric juices and mucus in the stomach aid peristalsis and a smooth passage is provided to the foodShow MoreRelatedAll Animals And Humans Have A Digestive System Essay1318 Words   |  6 Pagesanimals and humans have a digestive system. The purpose of a digestive system is to digest and absorb. Digestion is the process by which food is broken down into small molecules, these small molecules are then absorbed into the body. The digestive system has two main parts, the digestive tract and accessory organs. According to Cliffs notes ( the digestive system has seven main processesRead MoreEssay on Probiotics and Prebiotics924 Words   |  4 PagesThe digestive system is a compellation of organs t hat process foods consumed by humans. Our digestive system is made up of the stomach and intestines. These organs work simultaneously to break down food into smaller molecules so the body can extract nutrients and then turn it into waste. Since our digestive system constantly comes in contact with various foods, it also becomes an active site for growth of bacteria. Our digestive system contains astounding amounts of bacteria, which are both beneficialRead MoreEndocrine System And Endocrine Systems1098 Words   |  5 PagesEndocrine System Paper The endocrine system is the accumulation of organs that create hormones that direct digestion system, development and advancement, tissue capacity, sexual capacity, generation, rest, and state of mind, in addition to other things. 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As the second largest organ the body has, next to the skin, it serves many purposes. It produces immune agents to control infections, removes germs, bacteria and poisons from the blood, and it makes proteins that produce bile and keep the blood clotting (National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, 2003). No one can live without a functioning liverRead MoreThe Digestive System : Inhibition And Exocytosis1630 Words   |  7 PagesPancreatic Role in the Digestive System: Inhibition and Exocytosis The function of the pancreas has a substantial part in the regulation of the digestive system. The small intestine alongside the pancreas also contributes many features to the signaling pathways protein and other major enzymes must undergo before reaching the exocytosis stage. Specific hormones and receptors help in the necessary release of such enzyme. 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Our tour will begin as we enter the bodyRead MoreBody Systems of Humans, Crayfish, Pigs, and Earthworms1598 Words   |  7 PagesBody Systems of Various Organisms All organisms in the world have a range of systems and organs in their body. Some organisms may share similar body systems while others have absolutely nothing in common. Several of those organisms include humans, pigs, crayfish, and earthworms. From their mushy, gushy organs to their soft, gentle skin, you may think, â€Å"How are humans and pigs possibly alike? Or a crayfish and an earthworm?† In many ways they may not be, but in other ways, they are very much alike

Friday, May 15, 2020

Quotes From Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes

Flowers for Algernon is a famous novel by Daniel Keyes. Its a bittersweet novel of a mentally disabled man named Charlie, who undergoes an experimental procedure to gain higher intelligence. The book follows his evolution from his low level, through his experiences of coming to understand the world around him. The book raises ethical and moral questions about the treatment of the disabled and happiness. The story is told through Charlies diaries and other documents. One of the ways Keyes portrayed Charlies intelligence was through the evolution of his spelling and  grammar.   Quotes From Flowers for Algernon Any one who has common sense will remember that the bewilderments of the eye are of two kinds, and arise from two causes, either from coming out of the light or from going into the light, which is true of the minds eye, quite as much as of the bodily eye; and he who remembers this when he sees any one whose vision is perplexed and weak, will not be too ready to laugh; he will first ask whether that soul of man has come out of the brighter life, and is unable to see because unaccustomed to the dark, or having turned from darkness to the day is dazzled by excess of light. And he will count the one happy in his condition and state of being, and he will pity the other.  -The Republic, Prefaceall my life I wantid to be smart and not dumb and my mom always tolld me to try and lern just like Miss Kinnian tells me but its very hard to be smart and even when I lern something in Miss Kinnians class at the school I ferget alot.  I dint know mice were so smart.  If your smart you can have lots of frends to talk to and you never get lonley by yourself all the time.  Some times somebody will say hey lookit Frank, or Joe or even Gimpy. He really pulled a Charlie Gordon that time. I dont know why they say it but they always laff and I laff too.I beet Algernon. I dint even know I beet him until Burt Selden told me. Then the second time I lost because I got so excited. But after that I beet him 8 more times. I must be getting smart to beat a smart mouse like Algernon. But I dont feel smarter.She says Im a fine person and Ill show them all. I asked her why. She said never mind but I shouldnt feel bad if I find out everybody isnt nice like I think.  One thing? I, like: about, Dear Miss Kinnian: (thats, the way? it goes; in a business, letter (if I ever go! into business?) is that, she: always gives me a reason when - I ask. Shes a genius! I coud be smart like-her, Punctuation , is? fun!  I never knew before that Joe and Frank and the others liked to have me around just to make fun of me. Now I know what they mean wen they say to pull a Charlie Gordon. Im ashamed.Now I want you to look at this card, Charlie. What might this be? What do you see on this card? People see all kinds of things in these inkblots. Tell me what it makes you think of.I was seeing them clearly for the first time - not gods or even heroes, but just two men worried about getting something out of their work.  It had been all right as long as they could laugh at me and appear clever at my expense, but now they were feeling inferior to the moron. I began to see that by my astonishing growth I had made them shrink and emphasized their inadequacies.  I had betrayed them, and they hated me for it.  Our relationship is becoming increasingly strained. I resent Nemurs constant references to me as a laboratory specimen. He makes me feel that before the experiment was not really a human being.  What did you expect? Did you think Id remain a docile pup, wagging my tail and licking the foot that kicks me? I no longer have to take the kind of crap that people have been handing me all my life.  Remembering how my mother looked before she gave birth to my sister is frightening. But even more frightening is the feeling that I wanted them to catch me and beat me. Why did I want to be punished? Shadows out of the past clutch at my legs and drag me down. I open my mouth to scream, but I am voiceless. My hands are trembling, I feel cold, and there is a distant humming in my ears.  It may sound like ingratitude, but that is one of the things I hate here - the attitude that I am a guinea pig. Nemurs constant references to having made me what I am, or that someday there will be others like me who will become real human beings. How can I make him understand that he did not create me?  They had pretended to be geniuses. But they were just ordinary men working blindly, pretending to be able to bring light into the darkness. Why is it that everyone lies? No one I know is what he appears to be.  Nothing in our minds is ever really gone. The operation had covered him over with a veneer of education and culture, but emotionally he was there--watching and waiting.  Im not your friend. Im your enemy. Im not going to give up my intelligence without a struggle. I cant go back down into that cave. Theres no place for me to go now, Charlie. So youve got to stay away.  ARTIFICIALLY-INDUCED INTELLIGENCE DETERIORATES AT A RATE OF TIME DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE QUANTITY OF THE INCREASE.the men of the cave would say of him that up he went and down he came without his eyes.  I passed your floor on the way up, and now Im passing it on the way down, and I dont think Ill be taking this elevator again.  P.S. please if you get a chance put some flowers on Algernons grave in the back yard.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Is Addiction An Incurable Disease Essay - 909 Words

Is Addiction an Incurable Disease? By Daniel J Farish | Submitted On May 26, 2011 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook 2 Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Call addiction what you wish - a condition, disease or a disorder. I have no problem with those labels. What I do have a problem with is every Tom, Dick and Harry in the addiction treatment industry insisting that addiction an incurable disease. Terminal cancer is an incurable disease. Addiction is entirely curable. I know this to be true, because I m a cured alcoholic and there are millions of others like me. So, why does the addiction treatment profession refer to addiction as an incurable disease? Well, for one thing, it s good for business. Addiction treatment is a multi-billion dollar industry. Like any other corporate entity involving millions of dollars, there is a vested interest for many treatment centers to keep people coming back. During my own time spent in rehab, I was shocked to learn that many of my fellow patients had been admitted to rehab hospitals three or more times without success. Labeling addiction as an incurable disease also allows a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment. If every patient believes he or she suffers from the sameShow MoreRelatedAddiction : A Serious Problem Essay1559 Words   |  7 PagesAddiction is a very serious problem in today’s society. It is the goal of counselors to help those who suffer from addictions. There are many different models that attempt to explain what addiction is, and how someone gets addicted. There many different views about addiction. â€Å"Historically addiction has been understood in various ways- a sin, a disease, a bad habit-each a reflection of a variety of social, cultural and scientific conceptions(Hammer et al., 2012 p. 713). While there are many differentRead More The Etiology of Addiction Disease Model Essay examples1522 Words   |  7 PagesAddiction is like all behaviours â€Å"the business of the brain†. Addictions are compulsive physical and psychological needs from habit-forming sus tenances like nicotine, alcohol, and drugs. Being occupied with or involved in such activities, leads a person who uses them again and again to become tolerant and dependent eventually experiencing withdrawal. (Molintas, 2006). Addictive drugs cause dopamine neurons to release dopamine, the pleasure hormone. The narcotics disable the neurons that wouldRead MoreAddiction : The American Society Of Addiction Medicine ( Asam )778 Words   |  4 Pages Addiction is a problem that is misunderstood by many people. One of the reasons it is so misunderstood is because there is no real consensus as to what addiction really is due to Satan’s lies as to the true nature of addiction. Many people consider addiction a disease. The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) states â€Å"Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry†. However, Psychology Today questions whether addictionRead MoreMontoyaW Conceptualizingaddictionpaper1080 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Conceptualizing Addiction Paper Montoya Williams BSHS/455 November 4, 2014 Carla Malewicz Conceptualizing Addiction Paper Introduction For many years, individuals have battled substance abuse and addiction. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology †MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology. Answer: Introduction Sterilization is the process that is used to eliminate microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast viruses and fungi on the surfaces and bodies on which they are found(Levinson, 2013). The microorganisms can cause diseases to humans if they are not sufficiently controlled.Vegetative microorganisms are easily controlled by moist heat, however bacterial spores for example endospores are difficult to control by moist heat and are called thermoduric i.e. they can withstand even higher temperatures of steam above 100 degrees centigrade. There are different types of sterilization methods apart from saturated steam sterilization that include: chemical sterilization, done using chemicals; physical sterilization done using gamma rays. Sterilization is a very important process in the clinical set as well as in the day to day life. In the hospitals, sterilization is done to reduce the bio-burden in the environment. The areas may include hospital floors, tables, surfaces as well as the medical equipm ent used in the hospital. In the pharmaceutical industries where manufacture of drugs take place, this process of sterilization is important to keep the equipment and handlers microbial free so as to prevent contamination of the final medicines manufactured (AusHFG,2016). The principal used in sterilization by saturated steam involves using saturated steam at high temperature and pressure in an enclosed container, where there is total air removal from the container and the articles being sterilized maintained at points accessible to the steam over a sufficient period of time to ensure total destruction of the microbes(Levinson, 2013). The sterilization process by saturated steam is monitored by either using thermocouples (a temperature and pressure gauge), chemical indicators or biological indicators like the bacteria Bacillus Stearothermophilus provided as spore strips for monitoring sterilization. Sterilization by saturated steam is a preferred and ideal method for sterilizing art icles because it is efficient, fast and not toxic to the user and the environment.Biocidal activity of saturated steam is due to the high amount of latent heat released from steam that penetrates and destroys the cellular structure of the of the microbes causing death in even the most resistant spores. Dry heat on the other hand produces little energy that destroys the cellular components of the microbes, however it may not destroy resistant spores. The sterilization time generally includes 121 degree centigrade, 101 kPa and 15 minutes for liquids and 134 degree centigrade, 203 kPa and 3 minutes for medical devices and surgical linens. Tyndallisation is an old method of sterilization that involves heating the substance to boiling point or just below the boiling point and holding it there for about 15 minutes, repeated for 3 consecutive days. This experiment is crucial in its application in the field of microbiology since it helps to control microorganisms in places and objects where they are not required, thereby helping in controlling incidences of microbial infections.(Levinson, 2013) Aim. To understand the significance of sterilization. To establish the use of moist heat in the process of sterilization. To determine the fundamental requirements for sterilization by saturated steam. Materials. Sterile forceps. Paraffin oil. Sterile bottles with rubber seals capped with screw. Four paper strips inoculated with Bacillus Stearothermophilus spores. Two 250ml Schott bottles Two Sterikon with bio-indicator vials. Sterile water 10ml. Two sterile Pasteur pipettes. Five adhesive labels circular in nature. Two Thermalog sterilization indicators. Tryptone Soy Broth (TSB). Automatic pipette. Labels were placed on the caps of the 5 screw capped bottles. The bottles were then labelled 1, 2, 3,4 and 5.Strips of paper inoculated with Bacillus stearothermophilus were aseptically placed in bottles 1, 2, 3 and 4. With the aid of the pipette 6 drops of sterile water were added to bottle number 2. The spore strip in bottle number 4 was covered with paraffin oil. The caps of bottles 2, 3 and 4 were fastened tightly and then they were placed in a sterilizer.Bottle 1 was not processed. Two Thermalog strips were placed in the 2 Schott bottles.2ml of water was added to one of the bottles and then loosely caped. The second bottle was tightly caped. The two Schott bottles and a Sterikon plus bio-indicator vials were placed in the sterilizer along other bottles and kept at 121 degree Centigrade for an hour.The second bio-indicator was not sterilized. The Thermalog strips were then examined at the end of the sterilization. 3ml TSB was added to bottles 1, 2, 3 and 5. The spore strip in bottle 4 was aseptically transferred to bottle 5. Bottle 4 was discarded into paraffin discard. The bottles and the two Sterikon plus indicator vials were incubated for 3 days at 56 degree Centigrade. The results were based on the colour changes that occurred on each of the bottles upon incubation at 37 degrees centigrade. For the Thermalog strips their colour change were also examined and recorded as below. Bottle Conditions Growth Reason 1. Turbid+++ Present Due to lack of sterilization. 2. No turbidity Absent Due to sterilization. 3. No turbidity Absent Due to sterilization. 5. No turbidity Absent Due to sterilization. Turbidity key: ++++ Thermalog strips Material Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Thermalog strips Blue No colour change Material Before Incubation After Incubation Sterikon Vial 1 Pink Clear and pink Sterikon Vial 2 Pink Cloudy and yellow From the results above, it can be deduced that saturated steam sterilization is effective against bacteria and other microbes since turbidity was not observed on the bottles 2, 3 and 5 that were subjected to sterilization process then afterward incubated for microbial growth. Turbidity is a sign of microbial growth(Levinson, 2013). Bottle 1 which was not sterilized became turbid upon incubation, an indicator of microbial growth. The Thermalog strips(bio-indicators) were examined in the first and second treatments. On examinationthe strip in the first treatment showed growth indication by turning bluebecause it was not subjected to sterilization process which is needed to destroy the microbes whereas the strip in the second treatment showed no growth indication because it was subjected to sterilization process thus the spores of the bio-indicator were destroyed completely ,thus, no growth upon incubation. The Sterikon vials 1 and 2 were both pink before incubation, however, after incubation the Sterikon vial 1 became clear and pink indicating lack of microbial growth. This is because the Sterikon vial 1 was subjected to the process of sterilization whereas Sterikon vial 2 was not subjected to sterilization which hence microbes were not destroyed and grew upon incubation. The unexposed strips are cultured when examining the biological indicators after sterilization so as to allow for the growth of the bacteria in the unexposed strip, a confirmation that lack of exposure to the sterilization process leads to persistence of the microbes on the strip. Other physical control methods for sterilization include use of gamma rays and physical barriers like in membrane filtration process(Levinson, 2013). Prions are infectious spore forming particles of microbes that are very difficult to control and can cause serious infections for example, anthrax, gangrene, tetanus and food poisoning. They are described as thermoduric i.e. they can tolerate temperatures up to 100 degrees centigrade and cannot be therefore effectively controlled by steam sterilization. They thus need other physical methods of control like the use of gamma rays. References AusHFG. (2016). AusHFG. Retrieved from Levinson, W. (2013). Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology (Lange Medical Books) 13th Edition. San Francisco: Mc Graw Hill Educator.